To function as a tool, the classroom computer need only have some useful capability programmed into it such as statistical analysis, super calculation, or word processing. Students can then use it to help them in a variety of subjects. For example, they might use it as a calculator in math and various science assignments, as a map-making tool in geography, as a facile, tireless performer in music, or as a text editor and copyist in English. Because of their immediate and practical utility, many such tools have been developed for business, science, industry, government, and other application areas, such as higher education. Their use can pay off handsomely in saving time and preserving intellectual energy by transferring necessary but routine clerical tasks of a tedious, mechanical kind to the computer. For example, the burdensome process of producing hundreds or even thousands of employee paychecks can be largely transferred to the computer through the use of accounting software; the tedious recopying of edited manuscripts of texts or even music can be relegated to the computer through word or musical notation processing software, the laborious drawing of numerous intermediate frames for animated cartoons can be turned over to the computer through graphics software or the fitting of a curve to experimental data can be done by the computer through statistical software. To use the computer as tutor and tool can both improve and enrich classroom learning, and neither requires student or teacher to learn much about computers. By the same measure, however, neither tutor nor tool mode confers upon the user much of the general educational benefit associated with using the computer in the third mode, as tutee.
COMPUTER AS TUTOR
To function as a tutor in some subject, the computer must be programmed by “experts” in programming and in that subject. The student is then tutored by the computer executing the program(s). The computer presents some subject material, the student responds, the computer evaluates the response, and, from the results of the evaluation, determines what to present next. At its best, the computer tutor keeps complete records on each student being tutored; it has at its disposal a wide range of subject detail it can present; and it has an extensive and flexible way to test and then lead the student through the material. With appropriately well-designed software, the computer tutor can easily and swiftly tailor its presentation to accommodate a wide range of student differences. Tutor mode typically requires many hours of expert work to produce one hour of good tutoring, for any or all of several reasons:- (a) As intuitive beings, humans are much more flexible than any machine, even a computer. (b) Creating a lesson to be delivered by a human tutor requires less time because it omits much of the detail, relying upon the spontaneous improvisation and performance of the instructor to fill in both strategy and substance at the time of delivery. (c) Computers are still relatively crude devices and the only means we have of programming them are awkward and time-consuming. (d) Human instruction rarely aims to accommodate individual differences because the normal classroom situation prohibits such accommodation; hence lesson preparation and design are simpler and swifter. Because such accommodation is possible with the computer as tutor, the substantive and strategic details needed to individualize the lesson tend to get included, thus often greatly lengthening lesson design and preparation time.
COMPUTER AS TUTEE
To use the computer as tutee is to tutor the computer; for that, the student or teacher doing the tutoring must learn to program, to talk to the computer in a language it understands. The benefits are several. First, because you can’t teach what you don’t understand, the human tutor will learn what he or she is trying to teach the computer. Second, by trying to realize broad teaching goals through software constructed from the narrow capabilities of computer logic, the human tutor of the computer will learn something both about how computers work and how his or her own thinking works. Third, because no expensive predesigned tutor software is necessary, no time is lost searching for such software and no money spent acquiring it. The computer makes a good “tutee” because of its dumbness, its patience, its rigidity, and its capacity for being initialized and started over from scratch. Students “teach” it how to tutor and how to be a tool. For example, they have taught it to tutor younger students in arithmetic operations, to drill students on French verb endings, to play monopoly, to calculate loan interest, to “speak” another computer language, to draw maps, to generate animated pictures, and to invert melodies. Learners gain new insights into their own thinking through learning to program, and teachers have their understanding of education enriched and broadened as they see how their students can benefit from treating the computer as a tutee. As a result, extended use of the computer as tutee can shift the focus of education in the classroom from end product to process, from acquiring facts to manipulating and understanding them.
Assignment 2 LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) and COURSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS)
LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (LMS) A learning management system is a software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology courses or training programs. Usually, the LMS provide an instructor with a way to create and deliver content, assess students performance and monitor students participation. Students also will have the ability to use interactive features through LMS.
COURSE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (CMS) A course management system (CMS) is a collection of software tools providing an online environment for course interactions. The CMS is typically includes a variety of online tools and environments, such as: a) An area for faculty posting of class materials such as course syllabus and handouts b) An area for student posting of papers and other assignments c) A gradebook where faculty can record grades and each student can view his or her grades d) An integrated email tool allowing participants to send announcement email messages to the entire class or to a subset of the entire class e) A chat tool allowing synchronous communication among class participants f) A threaded discussion board allowing asynchronous communication among participants In addition, a CMS is typically integrated with other databases in the university so that students enrolled in a particular course are automatically registered in the CMS as participants in that course.The decision to use a CMS in a traditional face-to-face course has implications for course design that often go unnoticed by instructors in their initial use of such systems. This module lists technical and pedagogical tips that instructors should consider as they place materials into a CMS. While it is intended primarily for instructors who are using a CMS for the first time, instructors who have already used a CMS in other courses might benefit by using these tips as a checklist.
Here is our report or the data analysis regarding our survey on Application of 21st Century Skills in Learning Environment.
The survey report: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1mhFXkvn9yVuceWUKgpcQe4swddrju_Wcb3lEPjiGjcM/edit?usp=sharing
The survey form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/17Yh2H_avKn0tZDlo9wJX44lcJlUP9pdfm9Fw4MaJZco/prefill
Assignment 4 (Research)
WHY DO WE NEED TO CONDUCT A RESEARCH????
1. Get to know your professors outside of the formal classroom setting. Students rarely get to know faculty members outside of the stuffy classroom setting. Conducting research allows you to learn more about what they are like as teachers, researchers, and humans. You may find out that they are just as cool and weird as you are.
2. Explore a subject/topic that you are interested in, in more depth. Most of your classes will cover a large array of material in a relatively short period of time. This doesn’t always allow for you to explore the subject matter that most perks your interest in more depth. Conducting research bridges this gap and affords you the opportunity to think deeply along the lines of inquiry that you find most interesting.
3. Learn something that will change the way you look at the world. Ever heard of the Higgs Boson? Or watched an episode of Cosmos? We’re not saying you’re going to make discoveries on a similar scale, but undoubtedly you will experience many “a ha” moments during your research.
4. Gain skills employers are looking for. The skills you gain through conducting research will prepare you to excel in whatever career pathway you choose. Critical thinking, analysis, attention to detail, creativity, time management, and problem solving are the core skills that employers look for in graduates, and you can obtain them all through research.
5. Gain experiences that will assist with defining your career path. The path you will take to get to your first “real” job after college is more than likely going to be messy. What you think you want to do now is often not what you end up doing, and that is completely normal. But you need to start experimenting and exploring areas that you are interested in, and research is one option that allows you to do this. If you think you would like to pursue a career in natural resource management, try conducting some community based research through the Environmental Leadership Program. If you always thought that archaeologist have cool jobs, join a research group and get some field experience to see what it is really like. There are options in every major to conduct research and creative scholarship – you just need to take advantage of the educational opportunities that the University of Oregon has to offer.